Because it is now well admitted that daily consumption of fruit provides important health benefits, it becomes important to decipher the mechanisms by which nutritional and sensory qualities are established during fruit development. Building on the completion of the whole genome sequence for the two major fleshy fruit species tomato and grapevine, the proposed COST Action aims to bring together research groups working on climacteric (tomato) and non-climacteric (grape) model fruits to exchange knowledge and to harness European research in this area to the most advanced genomics and post-genomics technologies. The Action is expected to bring new insight on the physiology and biochemistry of fleshy fruit. The training of researchers on cutting-edge methodologies and the implementation of bioinformatics tools for data integration will significantly enhance the competitiveness of European research in this field. Combining studies on the two fruit models in an unprecedented multidisciplinary approach will expand our understanding of fruit development and will provide new leads to improve fruit quality.